澳洲代写毕业论文之排碳税

澳洲代写毕业论文之排碳税

对住户收入分布的影响,能源税和碳税的研究已经在一些研究中,虽然几乎所有的人都专指发达经济体。这可以说是“环保税”,因为在发达经济体已实施更广泛的情况下,因为消费的CO2燃料,即使在人口,这其实是在根的权益问题。
其中最早的作品是一个Poterba(1991),在美国的汽油税的分配效应进行分析。从美国消费者的开支统计调查,Poterba(1991)使用的数据计算家庭收入和支出,致力于汽油购买的分数。
他认为,税收是仅略有倒退,尤其是当表现为支出的份额。另一方面,Safirova等。 (2004)发现拥塞的负担不成比例地落在丰富(在华盛顿,DC),因此,道路收费,燃油税将强烈的回归。
随着欧洲碳税的项目,Pearson和史密斯(1991)估计在7个欧洲国家,即法国,德国,意大利,荷兰,西班牙,英国和爱尔兰的税收分配的影响。增加Poterba的做法,包括价格弹性(虽然他们没有估计任何点播系统),他们发现,在最初有五个国家的税收将是弱回归,而这将是显着倒退在英国和强烈的回归爱尔兰。

 

澳洲代写毕业论文之 Carbon Tax

The impact of energy and carbon taxes on household income distribution has been investigated in a number of studies, although almost all of them refer exclusively to developed economies. This is arguably the case because in developed economies “green” taxes have been implemented more extensively and because the consumption of CO2 related fuels is more even across the population, which fact is at the root of the equity problem.

Among the earliest works is one by Poterba (1991), who analyses the distributional effect of a gasoline tax in the US. Using the data from the US Consumer’s Expenditure Survey, Poterba (1991) calculates the fractions of household income and expenditure that are devoted to gasoline purchase.

He finds that the tax is only slightly regressive, especially when expressed as a share of expenditure. On the other hand, Safirova et al. (2004) find that the burden of congestion falls disproportionally on the rich (in and around Washington, DC), so that road pricing or fuel taxation would be strongly regressive.

With a view to the project of a European carbon tax, Pearson and Smith (1991) estimate the distributional impact of the tax in seven European countries, namely France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, the UK and Ireland. Augmenting Poterba’s approach by including price elasticities  (although they do not estimate any demand system), they find that in the first five countries the tax would be weakly regressive, whereas it would be significantly regressive in the UK and strongly regressive in Ireland.

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