Assignment First


香港正面临人口迅速老龄化的严峻问题。城市面临的问题是认真尝试解决东亚地区超低出生率和日益老龄化的人口问题(Gong, Liang, Carlton, Jiang, Wu, Wang & Remais, 2012, p. 846)。这些问题也适用于中国大陆。如果独生子女政策像城市化一样结束,城市将会经历抵消效应,那么城市的生育率将会有很大的不同。中国大陆的生育率有望降至香港、新加坡和台湾的水平。生育率的这些不平衡将进一步导致该国性别比例的不平衡,该国已开始在年轻一代中显示其影响。

有许多措施可以帮助扭转大中华地区的社会经济问题。政府可以降低抚养和生育孩子的机会成本,因为这将有助于提高生育能力(Chan, 2012, p. 191)。必须采取强有力的立法措施保护年轻人和老年人的就业。他们必须有带薪休假,这将有助于激励他们取得更好的成绩。必须向所有公民提供免费初等教育,以便使大多数人口在该国接受教育。必须建立针对老年人的直接支持支付制度。必须引入对个人最有利的有限减税制度。

从政府的政策和努力中可以看出,他们没有意识到由于人口老龄化社会所面临的问题。政府已经推出了大部分针对儿童的计划,但很少针对老年人,因为该国希望,与老年人相比,为儿童制定的项目能带来长期回报。儿童政策有时违反了政府的家长式倾向(He, Lu, Mol & Beckers, 2012, p. 29)。在东亚社会中,香港是最先进的,因为它重视促进性别平等政策。这些政策也必须有利于大多数政治派别。



Hong-Kong is facing acute problem of rapidly ageing population. The city faces the problem of making serious attempts to address the problem related to the ultra-low birth rates and increasingly ageing population throughout the region of East-Asia (Gong, Liang, Carlton, Jiang, Wu, Wang & Remais, 2012, p. 846). These problems are applicable to the mainland, too. A major difference can be assessed in the fertility rate of the city if the one-child policy will be ended as with urbanization and the city will experience the counterbalancing effects. There are prospects that the fertility ratio in the mainland will fall up to the levels of Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. These imbalances in the fertility ratio will further result in imbalances in the sex ratios in the country that has started showing its effect among the younger generation.
There are various steps that can help reverse the socio-economic problems in the Greater China. The government can reduce the opportunity cost of rearing and bearing the child as that will help improve the fertility performance (Chan, 2012, p. 191). Strong legislative measures must be introduced for the protection of jobs of youngsters and aged people. They must be provided with paid leaves that will be helpful in motivating them for better performances. Free primary education must be provided to all the citizens so that the majority of the population is educated in the country. The systems of direct support payments for aging individuals must be introduced. The systems of the limited tax deductions that is mostly beneficial for the individuals must be introduced.
It is observed from the policies and efforts made by the government that they are unaware of the problems that society faces due to ageing population. The government has introduced a majority of its schemes for the children but rare are for the ageing people, as the country expects long-term returns from the projects formulated for children in comparison to the elderly people. The policies for children sometimes violate the administration’s paternalist tendencies (He, Lu, Mol & Beckers, 2012, p. 29). Among the East Asian societies, Hong-Kong is most advanced because it put emphasis on the promotion of the gender equality policies. These policies must also favor a majority of the political spectrums.
The social change in the society is crucial but it is observed that till date the administration has its alignment with the historic attitudes that have become obsolete, such as the attitudes of the public towards gay and minority rights (Guo, 2012). Hong-Kong has the best prospects to lead in these spheres. The single-parent families must be well accepted by the society, broader gender equality must be promoted despite of the myth that it is against the Asian values. It is seen that a majority of the Asian families show weak level of commitment to the parenthood that further leads to low commitment towards supporting the ageing population. It was due to the effective civil service of Hong-Kong that it succeeded in the aspect of governance. In present scenario, the situation is that the cities of the Greater China are facing poor governance problem due to their civil servants.