Assignment First

澳洲代写价格:兽药残留评估和管理风险

目前用于管理人类动物产品消费情况下兽药残留的模型更侧重于产品的慢性高消费(Calabro et al ., 2011)。畜产品长期高消费是指畜产品消费较多的人群或国家。长期大量消费动物产品的消费者也会因文化而异。该模型假设一个成年人的平均体重为60公斤。在估计慢性饮食暴露时,首先要计算的是正在考虑的肉类或动物产品的每日估计摄入量(Ryser & Marth, 2007)。这里使用的是残留物消耗的中位数。组织的数量达到残留的中位浓度用于设置最大残留限度(MRL)。这里考虑的EDI是所有进气口的总和。当无法确定MRL或EDI是什么时,还可以使用理论最大每日摄入量(TMDI)作为替代。全球急性饮食暴露评估(GEADE)是另一种用于暴露评估的新方法(CVMP-VICH安全工作组,2004)。新方法优于MRL方法,因为新方法能够基于更现实的世界范围内的值进行膳食暴露。可以更好地输入每个人的详细信息和数据,如体重、饮食模式等。此外,肌肉组织的差异也将被考虑的动物产品使用。例如,家畜肉的肌肉组织将与鱼类、软体动物和甲壳类动物的肌肉组织相区别。

The current model that is used to manage the veterinary drug residue in the case of animal products consumption by humans is one that is more focused on the chronic and high consumption of products (Calabro et al, 2011). Chronic and high consumption of animal products refers to those section of the people or countries where animal products are consumed more. Chronic high consumers of animal products will also vary based on culture. The model assumes an average adult to have a body mass of 60 kg. In estimating the chronic dietary exposure, the first thing that would be calculated would be that of the estimated daily intake of the meat or animal product under consideration (Ryser & Marth, 2007). A median of residue depletion is used here. The amount of tissue to the median concentration in residue is used to set the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). EDI considered here is the sum of all intakes. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) is also used as an alternative when it is not possible to identify what the MRL or EDI is. Global estimate of acute dietary exposure (GEADE) is yet another new method that is being used for exposure estimation (CVMP-VICH Safety Working Group, 2004). The new method is better than the MRL method because the new method has the capacity to conduct dietary exposure based on more realistic worldwide values. Per person details and data can be input better such as weight, eating patterns and more. Also the muscle tissue difference across the animal product being used would also be considered. For instance, the muscle tissues of livestock meat would be differentiated from that of finfishes, molluscs and crustaceans.

澳洲代写价格:兽药残留评估和管理风险

在违规方面(正如在管理风险方面),人们注意到亚洲食品管理的违规案例最多。例如,请考虑在以水产养殖为例的兽药使用和管理方面所做的研究工作。特别是水产养殖被认为首当其冲地受到兽药的影响,因为海洋食品通常易受许多生产相关疾病的影响。此外,尽管有政府标准,但水食品中可能存在的药物残留无法准确检测(Lam et al ., 2012)。所有利益相关者必须齐心协力,以确保海产品残留水平保持在较低水平。对4个国家的药物检查政策和残留水平设置进行的研究似乎表明,与其他国家相比,亚洲国家可能有更多的残留违规。本研究考虑的四个国家是欧盟、美国、加拿大和日本(Chen et al, 2008)。所收集的兽药违规数据来自2000年至2009年。一些更常见的违规者是亚洲海产品,如农场养殖的虾、对虾、螃蟹和鲶鱼。在国际市场上,越南等国家被认为是违规行为最多的国家。检查机构在亚洲国家发现了明显的药物残留浓度(怀等,2005)。本文采用了有针对性的随机抽样方法。研究人员认为,一些违规行为没有得到恰当报道的一个主要原因是信息透明度较低。信息的传播和更适当的报告结构可以改进海产品检查,并确保在今后控制违规行为。由于这些漏洞是通过随机抽样的方式发现的,因此,一定数量的挖出的残余食物会到达消费者手中。因此,在这一领域存在着需要注意的重大健康风险。

In terms of violations (as in risks in management) it has been noted that Asian food management had the most cases of breaches. For instance, consider the research work that has been done in the context of veterinary drug usage and management in the case of aquaculture. Aquaculture in particular is seen to bear the brunt of exposure when it comes to veterinary drugs as marine food are usually susceptible to many productions related diseases. Residues of the drugs that might be present in aqua-food moreover cannot be accurately checked despite there being government standards (Lam et al, 2012). All stakeholders have to come together in order to ensure seafood residual levels are kept low. The study that was conducted with the drug inspection policies and residual level settings for four countries seems to indicate that Asian countries might have more levels of residual breach compared to others. The four countries that were considered in this research were the European Union EU, the United States US, Canada and Japan (Chen et al, 2008). Veterinary drug violation data was collected from the years of 2000 to 2009. Some of the more common violators were that of Asian sea foods such as that of farm raised shrimp, prawns, crab and catfish. In the international market countries such as Vietnam are seen to have the most number of violations. The inspecting bodies found significant residual drug concentration in Asian countries (Huai et al, 2005). Targeted and random sampling method had been employed here. The researchers argue that a major reason some of the breaches were not getting reported properly was because there was less information transparency. The dissemination of information along with more proper reporting structures could improve the seafood inspections and also ensure breaches were controlled in future. Since the breaches were discovered by means of random sampling it follows that some amount of residual dug laden food would have reached the consumers. Hence there are significant health risks to be noted in this sector.