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澳洲论文抄袭:罗马硬币的发展历史

硬币的主要表现形式是通过刻在硬币上的城市名称。硬币的主要生产包括铜币的生产,因为铜币的流通是地方性的。它们甚至为罗马帝国东半部的小变化奠定了基础。另一方面,银币的生产数量较少。在胡利奥-克劳迪安时期,西班牙、高卢、意大利、西西里岛、毛利塔尼亚和撒丁岛都生产过市民铜币。硬币生产的主要变化发生在安东尼时期,因为在那个时期,硬币的生产完全是基于东方现象。这些问题是由于这些城市庆祝它们与其他城市的“联盟”而引起的,这些城市有时与不止一个城市结盟。

罗马的历史基础是在公元前753年,也就是雷穆斯被罗穆卢斯杀死的时候,因此这座城市以他的名字命名。只是在这一事件之后,罗马才在早期由当地酋长统治,并在公元前616年由伊特鲁里亚国王统治。伊特鲁里亚的最后一位国王在公元前510年被杀,这是共和国诞生的时期。这种被广泛使用的现象的背景表明,东部城市之间发生了激烈的竞争(Metcalf, 2012)。联盟的用途很多,例如用于解决争端,也用于建立联盟,以提高城市的地位。城市地位的这一提高是通过与任何一个特定城市或同一时间与一个以上城市结盟而实现的。这样,各种“联盟”就构成了公民“外交政策”的组成部分。

罗马人逐渐建立了对意大利其他地区的控制,另一方面,罗马在公元前391年被高卢人洗劫。为了获得对西西里和地中海的控制权,在公元前264-241年至公元前150-146年之间爆发了统一战争。第二次布匿战争期间,汉尼拔和马其顿的腓力五世结盟。其结果是希腊被征服,随后东地中海的塞琉西帝国也被征服。在安东宁时期发行了七枚硬币,即克里特岛的科宁、色萨利的科宁、马其顿的科宁、莱斯博斯的科宁、伊奥尼亚的科宁、加拉提亚的科宁和本图斯的科宁。

在罗马的东方,城市货币是希腊式城市自治的一个重要方面。地方官员过去在罗马人制定的总体框架下管理希腊式的城市,地方官员负责监督,最终被皇帝看到(Gardner, 2012,p-159)。由于缺乏中央的“微观管理”,城市留下了相当程度的自由。挑选精英“治安官”的目的是让他们决定是否要打这些硬币,以及要在上面放些什么。美索不达米亚的伊德萨国王和博斯普鲁斯国王是唯一一个以黑海和亚佐夫海之间的海峡为中心的客户国王,该海峡在安东宁时期(Green, 2012)抚摸着硬币。日益贬值的埃德萨银币、青铜和金币被博斯普伦王国所铸造。

澳洲论文抄袭:罗马硬币的发展历史

The major representations of coins were through the name of cities that were struck on the coins. The major production of coins included the production of bronze coins, as the circulation of those was local. They even formed the basis of small changes in the Roman Empire’s eastern half. On the other hand, the production of silver coins was less in quantity. The production of civic bronze coins was done in Spain, Gaul, Italy, Sicily, Mauretania and Sardinia during the Julio-Claudian period. The major change in the production of coins took place during the Antonine period because during that period the production of coins was absolutely based on the eastern phenomenon. The issues were struck by the cities for celebrating their “alliances” with other cities which in some case was with more than one city.
The historic foundation of Rome was in 753 BC it was when Remus was killed by Romulus and thus the name of the city was given after him. It was after this incident only that Rome was ruled by the Kings early times by Local chieftains and in 616 BC it was ruled by Etruscan kings. The last king of the Etruscan was killed in 510 BC and this was the period during which the Republic was born. The background of the widely used phenomenon showed intense rivalry that occurred between the cities of the East (Metcalf, 2012). The uses of alliances were many such as they were used for dispute settlement and were also used for building the coalitions with an aim of enhancing the status of the city. This enhancement in the status of cities was done by aligning themselves either with any one particular city or with more than one city at a time. In this way, the various “alliances” formed itself as a component of the civic “foreign policy”.
The control of the rest of Italy was established by Romans gradually and on the other hand Rome was sacked by Gauls in 391 BC. For attaining control over Sicily and Mediterranean the Ounic Wars during 264-241 BC till 150-146 BC were fought. An alliance was made between Hannibal and Philip V of Macedonia during the second Punic War. The result of this was the conquest of Greece followed by the eastern Mediterranean’s Seleucid Empire’s conquest. Seven coins were issued during the Antonine period i.e. the Koinon of Crete, Koinon of Thessaly, Koinon of Macedonia, Koinon of Lesbos, Koinon of Ionia, Koinon of Galatia and Koinon of Pontus.
In the Roman East, the civic coinage was a crucial aspect in the self-administration of Greek-style cities. The magistrates used to run the Greek-style cities from the local aristocracies that had their operations in a general framework formulated by the Romans, and the provincial governors used to oversee it and were ultimately seen by the emperor (Gardner, 2012,p-159). A considerable degree of freedom for cities was left due to the absence of the central “micro-management”. The selection of the elite “magistrates” was done with an aim that the decision of striking the coins and what has to be put on them were made by them. The kings of Edessa in Mesopotamia and The Kings of Bosporus were the only client king who was centred on the straits located between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov which stroke the coinages during the Antonine period (Green, 2012). The increasingly debased Edessa silver, bronze and gold coins were struck by the Bosporan Kingdom.