The science that examines human civilization is called anthropology. It is a subject that addresses with the ancestries and evolution of human societies and the conflicts between them. The word anthropology is inferred from two Greek words: arthropods meaning “man” or “human”; and logos, meaning “thought” or “reason.” Anthropologists give efforts, by looking into the whole layout of human evolution and deportment, to accomplish an entire representation of cultural and social developments. Anthropology is a study of humanity and its divisions in society. It revolves around the diverse cultures and societies. Linguistic Anthropology refers to the study of different societies differentiated by language.
The innovative initiative of anthropology thrives on significant deduction of changing society’s dynamics due to cross cultural interaction ignited by the enlightenment in the eighteenth century. When the Renaissance found out view in art, it was the Enlightenment that vocalized and researched the problem of position in regarding history, society and culture. When the Renaissance was on the cusp of a breakthrough, the vital observation of Enlightenment produced rational rediscovery of the very new world and therefore got into the creation for modern anthropology.
Industrial revolution on the other hand is an outgrowth of modification from an agricultural, handicraft economy to an eclipsed by new industry. The process began in 18th century in England, and from that it spread to various parts of the world.
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot (1727-1781) commonly known as Turgot was born in Paris. He was a French economist. He is mostly admired for his contribution in economic liberalism. Turgot progress covers institutions, economy, society, culture, manner, legal odes as well as arts and science. His best known work was “Reflections on The Formations and Distribution of Wealth”. He played an important role by opposing financial support in American Revolution as he was the minister of the navy then.
Auguste Comte (1798-1857) was a French philosopher and also founder of Disciplines of sociology. He was born in Montpellier, Herault on 19th Jan 1786. His main articles were positivisms and law of the stages. His ideas about social evolution have some similarity to Karl Marx’s views about human society. Auguste Comte was the first who coined the term ‘sociology’. He along with Jacques Turgot metamorphosed the three stage law into the field of sociology. This path breaking research helped impart a new dimension to sociology as a whole. Then there was Lambert adolphe as well who were an astronomer as well as a statistician. He was the first to apply normal curve to solve social problems. However the turning point in the field of sociology was when Karl Marx proposed his theory on capitalism, using Adam smith’s four ideas. He found it difficult though to explain non-western societies as he was not well versed with the culture. However his thoughts and approaches on capitalism are revered even in today’s corporate environment. (L2; S3)
One of very interesting ideologies were purported by Edward b. taylor who broke down the religious belief of people into four types:
Totemism: people following this ideology believed that nature had its own way of restoring balance and thus religion was ancestral in nature
Animism: people in this school of thought believed that everything in this world had a soul
Polytheism: these people believed in more than one god
Monotheism: these people believed in one deity
James Frazier however on the other hand had a constant fear of studying religion lest he feared that religion on one hand could unite or divide people as well. His idea was of evolutionary progress made in religion or magic or science in general (L2; S4)