Assignment First

澳洲论文代写:人类学和社会学的讨论分析

研究人类文明的科学叫做人类学。它是一个与人类社会的祖先和进化以及它们之间的冲突有关的主题。人类学这个词是由两个希腊单词推断而来的:节肢动物,意思是“人”或“人”;道,意为“思想”或“理性”。人类学家通过观察人类进化和行为的整个过程,来努力完成对文化和社会发展的全面描述。人类学是一门研究人类及其社会分裂的学科。它围绕着不同的文化和社会。语言人类学是研究不同社会的语言差异。

人类学的创新动力源于对18世纪启蒙运动引发的跨文化互动所导致的社会动态变化的重要演绎。文艺复兴在发现艺术观的同时,也对历史、社会、文化的地位问题进行了发声和研究。在文艺复兴即将取得突破之际,对启蒙运动的重要观察产生了对新世界的理性重新发现,从而进入了现代人类学的创作。

另一方面,工业革命是由农业、手工业经济向新兴工业经济转型的产物。这个过程始于18世纪的英格兰,并从那里传播到世界各地。

安妮·罗伯特·雅克·特尔戈特(1727-1781)生于巴黎。他是一位法国经济学家。他因在经济自由主义方面的贡献而广受赞赏。Turgot progress涵盖了制度、经济、社会、文化、方式、法律、艺术和科学。他最著名的作品是《财富的形成和分配的思考》。作为海军部长,他在美国革命中反对财政支持,发挥了重要作用。

奥古斯特·孔德(1798-1857),法国哲学家,社会学创始人。他于1786年1月19日出生在埃罗特的蒙彼利埃。他的主要文章是实证主义和分期法。他关于社会进化的观点与马克思关于人类社会的观点有一些相似之处。奥古斯特·孔德是第一个创造“社会学”一词的人。他和雅克·特尔戈特将三阶段法转化为社会学领域。这一开创性的研究为整个社会学提供了一个新的维度。还有兰伯特·阿道夫他既是一位天文学家也是一位统计学家。他是第一个运用正态曲线来解决社会问题的人。然而,社会学领域的转折点是卡尔·马克思利用亚当·斯密的四种思想提出了他的资本主义理论。不过,他发现很难解释非西方社会,因为他对这种文化不是很熟悉。然而,即使在今天的企业环境中,他对资本主义的思想和方法仍然受到人们的尊敬。(L2;S3)

爱德华·b·泰勒提出了一种非常有趣的意识形态,他将人们的宗教信仰分为四类:

图腾崇拜:信奉这种意识形态的人认为自然有自己的方式来恢复平衡,因此宗教在自然中是祖先

万物有灵论:这个学派的人相信这个世界上的一切都有灵魂

多神论:这些人信仰不止一个神

一神论:这些人相信一个神

然而另一方面,詹姆斯·弗雷泽一直害怕研究宗教,因为他担心宗教一方面也会团结或分裂人们。他的观点是在宗教、魔法或一般科学领域取得的进化进步(L2;S4)

澳洲论文代写:人类学和社会学的讨论分析

The science that examines human civilization is called anthropology. It is a subject that addresses with the ancestries and evolution of human societies and the conflicts between them. The word anthropology is inferred from two Greek words: arthropods meaning “man” or “human”; and logos, meaning “thought” or “reason.” Anthropologists give efforts, by looking into the whole layout of human evolution and deportment, to accomplish an entire representation of cultural and social developments. Anthropology is a study of humanity and its divisions in society. It revolves around the diverse cultures and societies. Linguistic Anthropology refers to the study of different societies differentiated by language.
The innovative initiative of anthropology thrives on significant deduction of changing society’s dynamics due to cross cultural interaction ignited by the enlightenment in the eighteenth century. When the Renaissance found out view in art, it was the Enlightenment that vocalized and researched the problem of position in regarding history, society and culture. When the Renaissance was on the cusp of a breakthrough, the vital observation of Enlightenment produced rational rediscovery of the very new world and therefore got into the creation for modern anthropology.
Industrial revolution on the other hand is an outgrowth of modification from an agricultural, handicraft economy to an eclipsed by new industry. The process began in 18th century in England, and from that it spread to various parts of the world.
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot (1727-1781) commonly known as Turgot was born in Paris. He was a French economist. He is mostly admired for his contribution in economic liberalism. Turgot progress covers institutions, economy, society, culture, manner, legal odes as well as arts and science. His best known work was “Reflections on The Formations and Distribution of Wealth”. He played an important role by opposing financial support in American Revolution as he was the minister of the navy then.
Auguste Comte (1798-1857) was a French philosopher and also founder of Disciplines of sociology. He was born in Montpellier, Herault on 19th Jan 1786. His main articles were positivisms and law of the stages. His ideas about social evolution have some similarity to Karl Marx’s views about human society. Auguste Comte was the first who coined the term ‘sociology’. He along with Jacques Turgot metamorphosed the three stage law into the field of sociology. This path breaking research helped impart a new dimension to sociology as a whole. Then there was Lambert adolphe as well who were an astronomer as well as a statistician. He was the first to apply normal curve to solve social problems. However the turning point in the field of sociology was when Karl Marx proposed his theory on capitalism, using Adam smith’s four ideas. He found it difficult though to explain non-western societies as he was not well versed with the culture. However his thoughts and approaches on capitalism are revered even in today’s corporate environment. (L2; S3)
One of very interesting ideologies were purported by Edward b. taylor who broke down the religious belief of people into four types:
Totemism: people following this ideology believed that nature had its own way of restoring balance and thus religion was ancestral in nature
Animism: people in this school of thought believed that everything in this world had a soul
Polytheism: these people believed in more than one god
Monotheism: these people believed in one deity
James Frazier however on the other hand had a constant fear of studying religion lest he feared that religion on one hand could unite or divide people as well. His idea was of evolutionary progress made in religion or magic or science in general (L2; S4)