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澳洲论文网:有关商标注册和侵权的讨论分析

商标注册是指个人或企业可以保护其企业的商标(GOV.UK, 2016)。该品牌将需要有资格作为商标,商标必须注册。商标侵权的发生是由于其他企业或个人使用相同或类似的商标,从而造成混淆的可能性,如Esure Insurance Limited v Direct Line Insurance plc [2008] EWCA Civ 842。在这个案件中,法院判决的商标侵权是一个轮子上的鼠标的三维标记(Taylor, 2009)。消费者有可能把一个品牌与另一个品牌混淆。在工业设计方面,有一项设计权,自设计首次创造或出售之日起保护该设计15年。该设计可以注册为一个贸易设计,包括其外观,物理形状,配置和装饰。侵权诉讼可以对使用注册贸易设计未经发明者适当同意的个人提起(Taylor, 2009)。然而,如果该设计的所有者将该设计投放市场,如BMW v Round and Metal Ltd [2012] EWHC 299 (Aplin, Aplin, & Davis, 2013),则该注册设计保护将失效。必须保护数据库,以确保数据库中存储的数据不会以未经授权的方式提取和重用。版权保护可用于数据库中上下文的安排,也可用于某些特定内容的版权。自成体系的权利将保护数据库的全部内容。英国赛马委员会诉威廉希尔组织有限公司案C -203/02 [2004] ECR 1-10415是一个因使用原始数据提要的方式而在数据库版权保护方面产生争议的案件(Aplin et al ., 2013)。商业秘密对于企业保持竞争优势是必要的,因此商业秘密的财产保护也是必要的。Cross J在打印机和精加工有限公司诉Holloway [1965] 1 WLR 1案中的判决,在可能构成商业机密的问题上,确立了一个里程碑式的决定。商业秘密并不是前雇员心中的秘密,它必须以有形的形式被考虑(Aplin et al, 2013)。

澳洲论文网:有关商标注册和侵权的讨论分析

A trademark registration is where a person or business can protect the mark of their business (GOV.UK, 2016). The brand will need to qualify as a trademark and the trademark has to be registered. The trademark infringement arises when another business or person uses the same or a similar trademark so as to cause a likelihood of confusion as in the case of Esure Insurance Limited v Direct Line Insurance plc [2008] EWCA Civ 842. In this case the trademark infringement brought up for court judgement was that of a three dimensional mark of a mouse on wheels (Taylor, 2009). There was a likelihood that customers can confuse one brand for another. In terms of industrial design there is a design right that protects a design for 15 years since it was first created or sold. The design can be registered as a trade design inclusive of its appearance, physical shape, configuration and decoration. Infringement law suit can be brought on individuals who use the registered trade design without proper consent of the inventor (Taylor, 2009). However, the registered design protection would be exhausted if the owner of the design puts the design out in the market as seen in the case of BMW v Round and Metal Ltd [2012] EWHC 299 (Aplin, Aplin, & Davis, 2013). Protection for databases are necessary in order to ensure the data being stored in the database are not extracted in an unauthorized manner and reused. Copyright protection will be available for the arrangement of the contexts in a database or the copyright can be sought for some selective content. The sui generis right will protect the entire contents of the database. The British Horseracing Board ltd v William Hill Organization Ltd case C -203/02 [2004] ECR 1-10415 is a case where a dispute arose in database copyright protection because of the way raw data feed was being used (Aplin et al, 2013). Trade secrets are necessary for businesses to maintain a competitive advantage and as such trade secret property protection becomes necessary. The judgement of Cross J in the case of Printers & Finishers Ltd v Holloway [1965] 1 WLR 1 set a landmark decision in what could constitute a trade secret. A trade secret is not one that is carried by an ex-employee in his mind, it has to be in a tangible form for the breach to be considered (Aplin et al, 2013).