Assignment First


集水区保护着澳大利亚一些最重要的生物多样性群体(澳大利亚政府,2010)。为了可持续地支持生物多样性,洪泛区和盆地的水质目前需要改善,同时也在为此制定计划(Wilson & Lowe, 2003)。在古尔本断流集水区的背景下注意到的另一个与环境有关的问题是确保下游环境也能得到水。目前,由于许多场址需要流域水,下游环境得不到足够的水。例如,集水区大约有11%的盆地水,这是需要的Gunbower森林,这是一个拉姆萨尔遗址,和Koondrook部分,这是拉姆萨尔遗址的一部分,在中部默里森林。为了生物多样性的繁荣,有必要为所有的遗址制定一个可持续的供水计划。一份为流域地区发布的河流审计报告显示,古本和断裂带的生态系统很差。2012年的审计报告显示,为了改善鱼类和大型无脊椎动物的多样性,需要调节流量。在低地,河流植被很差,需要改善。此外,流量季节性除了水的消耗都对低地有影响。

园艺农场由墨累达令盆地的集水区灌溉。在2009-2010年和2010-2011年,人们注意到园艺农场的财务表现有很大的差异。goulburn破纪录的负收益率在2010-2011年(Ashton, & Oliver, 2012)。同样,在奶牛场的情况下,人们注意到,2009年至2010年,尽管墨利-达令盆地的灌溉奶牛场的总费用提高了42,044美元,但古尔伯恩河流域的灌溉奶牛场再次出现负增长。这些问题与水资源管理直接相关。

The catchment area conserves some of the most significant biodiverse groups in Australia (Australian Government, 2010). The water quality in the floodplains and in the basins need improvement as of current times in order to sustainable supports the biodiversity and plans are being undertaken for the same (Wilson & Lowe, 2003). Another environmental related issues noticed in the context of the Goulburn–Broken catchment is to ensure that the downstream environments also get water as well. In current times, the downstream environment does not get enough water because of the Basin water being necessary for many sites. For instance, the catchment has around 11 percent of the basin water which is needed for the Gunbower Forest which is a Ramsar site, and the Koondrook section which is part of the Ramsar sites as well, and are in the Central Murray Forests. A sustainable plan for water supply to all the sites is necessary in order for the biodiversity to flourish . A Rivers audit report that was released for the catchment area indicated that the ecosystem of the Gouburn and the Broken was poor. The audit report was conducted in 2012 and it showed that flow regulation would be required for improving the diversity in fish and macroinvertebrates. In the lowlands, the Riverine vegetation was seen to be poor and needed to be improved. Also flow seasonality in addition to the water consumption both had an impact on the lowlands。
Horticulture farms are irrigated by the Murray Darling Basin catchments. As of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, it was noticed that there were considerable variations in the financial performance based on the horticulture farms. The Goulburn-Broken recorded negative rate of return in 2010-2011 (Ashton, & Oliver, 2012). Similarly, in the context of Dairy farms, it was noticed that while the overall irrigated Diary farms in the Murray-Darling Basin improved by $42,044 in 2009-2010, the catchments of the Goulburn-Broken recorded negative rates once again. These issues are directly linked to water management .




Water management and economic activities are closely interlinked as the above statistics show. The catchment is directly responsible for a great amount of the agricultural and food processing industries in the area. Dryland agriculture only occupies about 2.4 million hectares of the catchment area and around 300,000 are irrigation areas that are directly dependent on the water .
In addition to the dairy farming, irrigated food production is a very popular industry here and is seen to support peach varieties, pears and tomatoes. Horticultural crops are supported and of the irrigated and dryland mix crops, there are cereals, legumes, oilseed grains and fodder related industries in the area. The catchment area and the geographical situation also makes this quite popular as a tourism and recreation area. While the catchment area supports the above industries quite directly, in the case of the health, education and other basic needs industries it is seen that the catchment area indirectly supports them; because the industries necessitate that a large population should come and live there. They need to be serviced directly by the health and education industries. A CSIRO report as of 2008 indicated that the water being used in the catchment area of Goulburn-Broken was much higher than the water usage in other areas. Around 50 percent of the surface water was being put to use and groundwater extraction uses up more than 10 percent of the natural resources available in the catchment area. Salinity control threats also happen here.