Similarly, Cerny argued that increasing internationalisation has brought about a shift from the welfare state to the ‘competition state’: The competing logics of collective organisation and the promotion of capitalist development are shifting the focus of ‘state intervention’ from forms which ‘decommodify’ those activities pursued by the state
(which organise essentially domestic socio-economic activities along non-market lines) to those which ‘commodify’ or ‘marketise’ both state economic activities and the other elements of state structure too(Cerny, 1990, p. 53, emphasis in original). The state is thus becoming ‘a commodifying agent’ rather than a ‘decommodifying agent’, a return to the role it played in the emergence of capitalism in the post-feudal period (Cerny, 1990, p. 230). The dividing line between public and private is thus being ‘eroded’, and yet ‘paradoxically, the total amount of
state intervention will tend to increase, for the state will be enmeshed in the promotion, support, and maintenance of an ever-widening range of social and economic activities’. Globalisation and competitiveness also feature in practical policy arguments, advanced by the likes of Robert Reich (Bill Clinton’s labour secretary) which stress that globalisation forces the workers of each nation to compete against each other (Reich, 1991). Competitiveness no longer depends on the success of nationally owned corporations (which have outgrown their national bases), but on the value added by workers within states. Globally mobile firms seek not only cheap labour, but depending on the product) skilled labour (which commands a higher price). Equipping workers with the skills to compete in the global marketplace is therefore the main task of governments. It is only
through education, and the application of new technology which such education allows for, that the value added by routine workers can be enhanced, and higher-paying investment in more sophisticated types of production can be attracted. Any full account of significant changes in welfare state arrangements in advanced capitalist economies must take account of change across a range of different states.
（这是国内社会经济活动的组织以及非市场线）的那些“商品化”或“marketise”国家的经济活动和国家结构的其他元素（切尔尼，1990，p. 53，重点在原件）。国家成为“商品化剂”而不是“decommodifying剂”，返回到它在后封建时代的资本主义产生的作用（切尔尼，1990，p. 230）。公共和私人之间的界线被“侵蚀”，然而，“奇怪的是，总金额