马克思认为，产品可以分为使用价值和交换价值。使用价值是个体的需要。另一方面，交换价值是仅用于教育目的的商品。这种商品没有真正的用途。货币就是用来表达交换价值的工具之一(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 204)。马克思认为，有用劳动和抽象劳动是两种劳动。有用的劳动力是满足个体社会需求所需要的实际需求。劳动主要是利用劳动者的生理需要来完成工作的劳动。马克思在经济学理论中提出的最大不足是他们没有认识到历史因素。生产在社会中很重要。然而，应该改变的是导致生产的特性和事件。一只看不见的手控制着交换经济。有许多值得注意的因素在这种交换经济中没有被考虑(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 207)。在这种交换经济中，只考虑了无关紧要的因素。没有人真正重视劳动力和生产要素的抽象影响。从根本上说，由于工人的心理压迫，管理层和资本家从根本上阻碍了个人的成就和潜力。他们是为社会资本家的需要而工作的。马克思认为，资本主义是失业的根本原因。马克思的这些理论在19世纪早期很流行。由于这种后果，这些共产主义思想现在被认为是过时的。然而，李嘉图和马尔萨斯的理论是马克思理论的一些基础。
里卡多认为，地主控制着玉米的价格，这是基于玉米的制造和生产成本。这种玉米的生产成本和定价由地主决定(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 93)。里卡多认为，地主本质上被认为是重罪犯。地主、工人和资本家是社会中的三种人。在这种情况下，工人和资本家直接依赖于地主。它们是社会经济不平等的原因(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 95)。这些概念在李嘉图和马尔萨斯的《政治经济学和税收原理》中得到了清晰的阐述，他们的基本观点是资本主义的贪婪摧毁了经济。社会中的不平等现象有所增加。生产机械化程度的提高导致利润和大量生产产品的增加。它还导致人们被机器取代，并造成恶劣的工作条件。由于这个原因，人类的劳动就不那么重要了。人民投入的大量劳动给社会带来了暴政。贫困是使人们沉溺于这个问题的恐惧。许多工人起义，如在社会中发展起来的勒德分子起义，主要源于对资本主义的焦虑。1798年提出的人口理论指出，社会人口呈指数增长。另一方面，农业生产正以算术速度增长。由于这一因素，如果人口继续增长，人们将没有生存的资源。有必要进行预防性检查和道德约束。积极的检查在社会中以战争、饥荒、贫穷和其他自然灾害的形式出现。这些因素之间应保持积极平衡，以确保降低失业率。
Marx states that products can be divided into use value and exchange value. Use value is the need of the individuals. Exchange value on the other hand was commodities meant only for purpose of education. There was no real use of the commodity. Money is one such tool that is used to express the exchange value (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 204).. Useful labor and abstract labor were the two kinds of labor according to Marx. Useful labor is the actual requirements that are needed to meet demands of the individual societies. Abstract labor is the labor that primarily utilizes physiological needs of the workers for completion of the work. According to Karl Marx greatest lack in the economic theories proposed is they did not understand the historical factor. Production is important in societies. Nevertheless it is the characteristic features and events that lead to production that should be changed. An Invisible hand controlled exchange economy. There were a number of notable factors that were not considered in this exchange economy (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 207). Only tangential factors were considered in this exchange economy. There was no real importance given to the abstract impact of the labor and the elements that go into manufacturing and production. Essentially by psychological oppression of the worker, management and capitalists essentially thwart individual accomplishments and potentials. They are made to work for the requirements of the capitalists in the societies. Capitalism was the root cause of unemployment according to Marx. These theories of Marx were popular in the early 19th century. These ideas of communism are now considered obsolete owing to this fallout. Nevertheless some of the foundation of the theories of Marx is seen in Ricardo and Malthus theories.
According to Ricardo, Landlords controlled the price of Corn, which was based on the manufacturing and production costs embedded in it. This cost of production and pricing of the corn was determined by landlord (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 93). Landlords were essentially considered to be felons according to Ricardo. Landlord, worker and capitalists were the three kinds of people in the societies. In this the worker and the capitalists were directly dependent on the landlord. They were the reason for economic inequalities in the societies (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 95). These notions were clearly elucidated in “Principles of Political Economy and Taxation” Ricardo and Malthus essentially stated that capitalistic greed destroyed the economy. There was a rise in inequalities in the societies. Rising mechanizations of production lead to increase in profits and amount of mass-produced products. It also caused people to be replaced with machines and caused deplorable working conditions. Due to this there was lesser importance given to human labor. Clocking the amount of labor put in by the people brought tyranny into the societies. Poverty was the fear that struck the people to indulge this issue. Many worker revolts such as Luddite Revolts developed in the societies primarily stemmed from angst against capitalism. Theory of population proposed in 1798 states that number of people was growing exponentially in societies. Agricultural production on the other hand was growing at an arithmetic rate. Owing to this factor people will have no resources to survive if population continues to grow. There is a need for preventive checks, moral restraints. Positive checks occur in societies in the form of disasters like war, famine, poverty and other natural disasters. There should be a positive balance between these factors to ensure lower unemployment rates.