这种研究发现的新方法极大地影响了对一神论早期发展的理解。有一个问题被提出，是否一个女神被崇拜与上帝耶和华，也许作为他的配偶。这一广泛讨论的问题是由德维尔在1967年发掘一个名为“基尔贝特·埃尔库姆”的犹太古墓时发现的碑文引发的。这座古墓被认为是8 -7世纪的。铭文上的一个短语是“耶和华和他的亚舍拉”。虽然铭文被损坏了，但它们被翻译成“被耶和华和他的阿舍拉保佑乌里亚胡;他从敌人那里救了他。根据他的翻译，亚舍拉可能是耶和华的配偶(Dever, 279)。
According to the Bible, Yahweh is the god of Israelites. His name was discovered to Moses. The biblical literature states that Yahweh is the divine warrior, who was responsible for leading the heavenly army against the enemies of Israel. He was the one who later became the God of Samaria (Israel) and Judah. Over the time temples of Israel and royal courts promoted Yahweh as the god of the entire universe. He was believed to possess all the godly powers and qualities. By the time of 6th century BCE, all the other gods were denied and Yahweh was considered as the only god of the universe (Dever, 2005, 201).
The title of the paper is derived from the question that did the gods had wives or do the people of Israel believed that their god had a wife? The modern concept of god and according to the old testament of the Bible, the answer to the above question would be no. As the Bible states that there is only one God and not other Gods exist. Also the God says that people should not worship any other Gods. But for an instance, if we forget about the above statement and will take a closer look in the Old Testament of the Bible, the allusions and references of other Gods could be found. The non biblical Account of New Testament events have references about other gods and goddesses besides Yahweh. The Research will concentrate on the question, was one of these goddesses is the wife of Yahweh?
This new approach towards the findings has drastically affected the understanding of early development of monotheism. The question has been raised that whether a goddess was worshipped along with the God Yahweh, perhaps as his consort. This widely discussed issue was initiated by the inscriptions unrevealed by Dever in the year 1967, during the salvage excavations of a Judean Tomb named as ‘Kirbet el-Qom’. This tomb is believed to be from 8th-7th century. One of the phrases on this inscription was “Yahweh and his Asherah”. Although the inscriptions are damaged but they are translated as “Blessed be Uriyahu by Yahweh and by his Asherah; from his enemies he saved him”. According to his translation, Asherah could be the consort to Yahweh (Dever, 279).
1975年和1976年，Kuntillet Ajrud的Kirbet el-Qom碑文激起了关于以色列宗教信仰的一神论和多神论方面的辩论。这导致了大量的文献，不同的学者对“Asherah”一词提出了不同的解释。关于亚舍拉的解释和作用的广泛争论，不仅对理解早期以色列一神论的实践，而且对研究非利士人的宗教也有深远的意义(Dever, 275)。
The further fuel to the topic was added when another inscription was found, which dated back to 8th century BCE. This inscription was found during the Meshel’s excavation at Kuntillet Ajrud. The painting and inscriptions were produced in two large storage jars. A line in one of the inscription ended with “Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah”.
In the year 1975 and 1976 inscriptions from Kirbet el-Qom at Kuntillet Ajrud have fuelled the debate about the monotheistic and polytheistic aspects of Israelite religious beliefs. This has resulted in to extensive literature, in which different scholars have proposed the varied interpretations of the word “Asherah”. The wide debate on the interpretation and role of Asherah has far reaching suggestions, not only for understanding the practice of monotheism in early Israel but also for studying the Philistine religion (Dever, 275).
The Ekron inscriptions were found in the year 1990. These inscriptions were found from the Khirbet el-Muqanna, which is 35 kilometres south-west of Jerusalem. These inscriptions are from the 7th century BCE. The ruins of pottery were found which were unscripted with the words “sanctified to Asherah”. After all these discoveries, the discussion still prevails among the scholars about the meaning of word Asherah.
Another question, which is raised by this issue oriented agenda, is that, whether or not monolatry ever existed in the Israelite religion? Also whether or not other gods existed or recognized but may not be worshipped. This question was examined by Tigay in his study. He analyzed more than 1200 Israelite and Judean names and their theological meaning. This was done in order to find out the Yahwistic and non-Yahwistic elements as in scripted on the inscription of Iron Age II. He believed that this kind of data would help in understanding the religious worship system of Israelite. Tigay concluded in his study that with the data which is currently available, it is difficult to suppose that Israelites worshipped gods other then Yahweh.