Assignment First

论文代写:澳大利亚塑料袋征税政策

零售商和消费者使用塑料袋的趋势正在迅速增加。据估计,世界各地的人们每年使用5000亿个塑料袋(Dee, 2002)。他们增加了人们的便利,同时破坏了我们的环境和海洋生物。在大多数商店里,人们在付款和结账的时候,会把商品和塑料袋一起送出去。这些袋子表面上是免费的,但实际上它的成本已经随着购买商品的成本进行了调整(Choe and Fraser, 2001)。这意味着塑料袋有一个积极的成本。本报告将侧重于经济政策,特别是对塑料袋征税以限制其使用,从而实现可持续环境。

过度使用塑料袋有多危险?

税收政策袋的征收

税收政策可以通过以下税收征收下的供求关系图来考察

应在这种负担由双方平均分担的情况下征税,因为在许多情况下,大部分负担落在消费者身上,如下例所示。

一个有效的经济政策对于实现方便、环境稳定和金融图表之间的平衡至关重要(Parkin, 2008)。因此,上述政策建议将有助于当局达到这种平衡。此外,政府将能够通过征收附加税来产生收入(Nolan-ITU 2002),同时为该国提供更好的环境条件。

塑料袋有一定的优点,但任何过度使用都是没有好处的。塑料袋的使用已经达到了危险的极限,它们增加了环境污染,因为它们是不可降解的,所以它们最终只能以垃圾填埋场或海洋污染的形式出现。许多海洋物种正因残骸而受苦。该报告提出了对塑料袋征税的政策,希望在一年内将塑化率从60%降低到90%。如果这一政策在全澳大利亚实行,并经过适当的考虑,澳大利亚可以在未来几个世纪享有更美好的绿色未来。

论文代写:澳大利亚塑料袋征税政策

The trend of using plastic bag by retailers and consumers is increasing rapidly. It has been estimated that people around the world uses 500 billion plastic bags during a year (Dee, 2002). They add to the convenience of people whilst destroy our environment and marine life. Plastic bags are given with the goods in most of the stores, when one pays and checks off from the store. These bags are apparently free of cost, but actually its cost has been adjusted with the cost of goods purchased (Choe and Fraser, 2001). It means plastic bags have a positive cost. This report will focus on the economic policies, specifically on imposing tax on plastic bags to limit its use and consequently achieving sustainable environment.
How Excessive Use of Plastic Bags is being Dangerous?
Imposition of Tax Policy Bags
The tax policy can be examined through the following supply demand graph under tax imposition
A tax should be applied where this burden is equally divided among both the parties, because in many case large portion of burden falls on the consumer, as in the example below.
An efficient economic policy is essential to attain equilibrium among, convenience, environmental stability and financial graphs (Parkin, 2008). Thus the above proposed policy will help the authorities to attain this equilibrium. Moreover, government will be able to generate revenue through collection of added taxes (Nolan-ITU 2002) whilst providing better environmental conditions in the country.
Conclusion
Plastic bags have certain advantages, but anything goes beyond excessive is never beneficial. Plastic bags usage has increased to a dangerous limit, where they are adding to environmental pollution, as they are not biodegradable so they only end up in the form of landfills or marine pollution. A lot of marine species are suffering due to debris. A policy of applying tax on plastic bag has been proposed in this report, which is expected to reduce the plastr from 60 to 90 percent within a year. If this policy is imposed all over Australia with proper considerations, Australia can enjoy a better green future for centuries.