论文代写 商品化

| 22-3月-2013 | 论文代写

论文代写

Offe presents a critical account of decommodification, emphasising its contradictory character. He defines decommodification as ‘the withdrawal and uncoupling of an increasing number of social areas and social groups (surplus labour power) from market relations’ (Offe, 1984, p. 61). The state is forced to intervene to ensure the survival of the commodity form, since the market is not self-regulating as liberal theory claims. However, this sets up a fundamental contradiction, since more and more aspects of life effectively become decommodified. The state has thus resorted to a strategy of ‘administrative recommodification’,whereby it attempts to create the conditions ‘under which legal and economic subjects can function as commodities’ (Offe, 1984, p. 124). There are three aspects to this strategy. First, ‘the saleability of labour power is enhanced through measures and programmes directed towards education, training, regional mobility and improving the general adaptability of labour power’. Second, ‘the saleability of capital and manufactured goods is enhanced through the transnational integration of capital and product markets, research and development policies, regional development policies, etc.’. Third, certain sectors of the economy are allowed ‘to fall victim to market pressures’. This attempt to support the commodity form through political and administrative means leads to a number of structural contradictions in Offe’s view. The first of these results from the level of taxation necessary to fund state intervention, which O’Connor (1973) called ‘the fiscal crisis of the state’.

论文代写

提供了一个重要的商品化,强调其矛盾的性格。他定义了商品化作为“退出和解耦,越来越多的社会领域和社会群体(剩余劳动力市场关系(提供),1984,p. 61)。政府被迫进行干预以确保商品的生存方式,因为没有市场的自我调节的自由主义理论。然而,这一基本矛盾,因为越来越多的生活的方方面面,有效地成为decommodified。国家因而诉诸“行政recommodification的策略,从而试图创造条件下,法律和经济主体可以作为商品(报价,1984,p. 124)。有三个方面对这一战略。首先,对劳动力的可行性措施和方案是通过对教育,培训,提高劳动力区域流动性和普遍适应性的。第二,“资本的可行性和制成品是通过资本市场和产品市场的跨国整合增强,研究与发展政策,区域发展政策,等等。第三,某些经济部门都是允许的”受害者,市场压力。本文试图通过政治和行政手段支持商品的形式提供的观点导致许多结构性矛盾。从税收水平的必要资金的国家干预的结果,第一,奥康纳(1973)称为“国家财政危机”。

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