Assignment First



在当今世界,关于动物实验的观点有很多。人们对动物实验的相关问题存在大量的社会、道德和伦理问题。根据盖洛普民意测验2015年在美国进行的最新调查显示,大约有67%的美国人非常关注将动物用于动物测试。他们表示,动物实验是一种不道德的做法,应该被放弃(Valappil et al, 2006)。杀害动物是一种不好的做法,应该废除。由于这些研究,这些公司被要求重新思考与动物实验有关的问题。同年进行的另一项名为皮尤波尔的调查显示,大约有50%的美国成年人投票反对将动物用于杀戮。这些研究产生了大量的观点。由于同样的原因,这些公司在动物实验的决策上也面临两难。

关于杀害动物的道德问题也得到了解决。这是由Tom Regan提出的,他认为动物有许多信仰和欲望,他们也有道德上的权利生活。里根还表示,人类和动物之间没有太大的区别。因此,杀害动物是错误的。伯纳德·罗林曾说过,给人类带来的好处永远不会超过动物必须面对的痛苦。而且,这并没有赋予人类任何猎杀动物的权利。

另一位研究学者彼得·辛格(Peter Singer)也认为,没有任何理由证明杀死动物是可行的,因为从道德角度考虑,痛苦是重要的。马尔科姆·麦克劳德(Malcolm Macleod)提出了合作的观点。他认为,有大量与动物实验相关的工作室,它们没有采用随机化、分配、隐藏和盲化与动物杀戮相关的评估过程。

In the present world, there are a number of viewpoints of people related to animal testing. The people are having a large number of social, moral and ethical questions with respect to the number of issues which are related to animal testing. According to the recent research conducted in America in the year 2015 by the Gallup poll, it was found that there are around 67 % of the American have been very much concerned about the use of animals for the purpose of animal testing. They express that testing of animals is an unethical practice and it should be abandoned (Valappil et al, 2006). The killing of Animals is a bad practice and it should be abolished. Because of these researches, the companies are asked to rethink for the issues related to the animal testing. Another survey named as Pew pole which was done in the same year stated that there are around 50 % of American adults who have voted against the use of animals for the purpose of killing. These researches have created a large number of viewpoints. Because of the same, the companies are in a dilemma related to taking the decisions for animal testing.
The moral issues have also been addressed on killing of animals. It has been proposed by Tom Regan who argues that the animals have a number of beliefs and desires and they also have the moral right to live. Regan has also expressed that that there is not much of a difference between humans and animals. Therefore, killing of animal is wrong. It has been argued by Bernard Rollin that giving the benefits to the human being can never overweigh the sufferings which have to be faced by the animals. Also, this is nothing which grants any rights to the humans to kill animals.
Another research scholar, Peter Singer also argues that there are not any grounds under which it is viable to do the killing of the animals as suffering is important for the moral considerations. Collaboration has been presented by Malcolm Macleod who has argued that there have been a large number of studios related to animal testing, which do not employ the process of randomization, allocation, concealment and blinding of the assessments related to the killing of animals.




与此类似,美国国立卫生研究院(NIH)也在2013年宣布,完全禁止对黑猩猩进行相关测试和实验。因此,所有计划使用黑猩猩进行测试的公司将不得不改变他们的计划。这对他们的决定有直接的影响,因为黑猩猩与人类有着密切的遗传关系,所以被用于许多测试目的(Brown, et al, 1983)。

另一个影响政府关于英国宰杀动物的决定的政治因素是,英国政府要求对动物的成本进行分析,以权衡整体知识的获得。如果发现这些动物在没有任何有用或足够的知识的情况下被毫无用处地杀害,他们将不得不放弃杀害动物的做法(Zutphen et al, 1993)。

Because of the raising social and ethical concerns, there is a change in political views related to killing of animals as well. The governments in nations such as New Zealand and Netherlands have responded to the acts of animal testing. They have responded to the concerns of the people by the making of strict laws for the invasive experiments and testing of animals. Because of this political change related to the killing of animals, the decisions of the companies are affected and they have to revise their activities (Abbott, 2005).
Another act was instantiated by the government of US, who added the captive chimpanzees to the endangered species act. As a result of the same, this specie cannot be used by the companies for the purpose of animal testing.
Similar to this, the US NIH has also made an announcement in the year 2013 that there is a complete ban on the testing and the experimentation related to the chimpanzees. Thus, all the companies who plan to use chimpanzee for the purpose of testing will have to changes their plans. This is a direct impact on their decisions as chimpanzees were used for a number of testing purposes because of their close genetic relationship with the humans (Brown, et al, 1983).
Another political factor which has impacted the decisions of the government regarding the killing of the animals in Britain is that the government of Britain has asked to do the analysis of the cost of animals to be weighed against the gain of the overall knowledge. If it is found that the animals are killed uselessly without any useful or adequate knowledge, they will have to abandon the practice of killing of animals (Zutphen et al, 1993).