Assignment First


弗洛伊德认为,个体有三个组成部分:本我,自我和超我。Id是一个人的原始自我(Crain, 2011)。自我是社会对个体发展的直接结果,超我是控制人的本我行为的作用。荣格还将人类的心理分为三个部分,即本我、个人无意识和集体无意识(Kahn, & Wright, 2013)。它认为本我是人的原始欲望,个人无意识是人的道德罗盘,集体无意识是社会决定因素(Kahn, & Wright, 2013)。这些因素需要主要加强营养,使儿童成长为一个健康有益的社会成员。Jung认为,人身上有一种与生俱来的力量,这种力量促使人们形成依恋关系,并理解情境中的关系动态(Crain, 2011)。

当一个婴儿出生时,婴儿只有他们性格的本我部分得到发展。正因为如此,孩子们沉迷于诸如吮吸拇指之类的活动,仅仅是为了取乐。这被称为口腔期。在肛门期,孩子们变得更加关注他们的肛门快感。在阴茎期,男孩发展出“恋母情结”。在女孩中,有“伊莱克特拉情结”的发展(Crain, 2011)。这在男孩和女孩之间是不同的。从5岁到青春期是潜伏期,人的性欲处于潜伏期。在弗洛伊德的理论中,对性能量的关注过多。他声称,一个人的行为源于他们与生俱来的性能量(Kahn, & Wright, 2013;科伦,2011)。卡尔•荣格(Carl Jung)对此普遍不以为然。他指出,孩子和母亲之间的关系基本上是由母亲对孩子的保护和照顾发展而来的(Jung, 2007)。Bowlby在他的依恋理论(Crain, 2011)中进一步发展了这些观察。



According to Freud, individuals have three components it is the id, ego and super ego. Id is the primitive self of a person (Crain, 2011). Ego is developed as a direct result of society on the individuals and super ego is the effects that control the actions of the Id of a person. Jung also divided the human psyche into three parts of this he had applied that there is Id, personal unconscious and collective unconscious (Kahn, & Wright, 2013). It states that the id is the primitive wants of a person, personal unconscious is the moral compass of a person and collective unconscious is the societal determinative factors (Kahn, & Wright, 2013). These factors need to be primarily enhanced nourishment for the child to develop into a healthy useful member of the society. Jung believed that there is an innate power that occurs on the people and this power drives people to form attachments and understand relationships dynamics of the situation (Crain, 2011).
When a baby is born, the infant has only the Id component of their personality developed. Owing to this the child indulges in activities such as sucking thumb for mere pleasure. This is known as the oral stage. In the anal stage the children become more focussed on their anal pleasure. In the phallic stage the boy develop “Oedipal complex”. In the girls, there is development of the “Electra complex” (Crain, 2011). This is found to vary between boys and girls. From the ages of 5 to puberty is the latency stage where the libido of a person remains latent. There was excess of focus on sexual energy in the Freud theories. He professed that a person’s behavior stems from their innate sexual energy (Kahn, & Wright, 2013; Crain, 2011). This was widely dismissed by Carl Jung. He stated that the relationship between a child and the mother is basically developed from the protection and care given by the mother towards the child (Jung, 2007). These observations were further developed by Bowlby in his attachment theory (Crain, 2011).
Applying these theories to the case study, it has been observed that the children were between the ages of five to seven. According to Freud, the children were in the phallic stage and had oedipal based on their gender. Jung theory professes that children develop understanding of their attachments in this stage. It was found that children from families where they were nourished emotionally, they were found to cope in the school environment however this was not the case with children who came from disturbed families.