Assignment First


非正式机构为组织提供丰富的信息,以制定战略,然后根据市场需求执行(Baker, 1993)。例如,沃尔玛发现很难将产品和在中国销售的过程联系起来。因此,该公司不得不重新制定战略,任命一位能够理解中国业务增长方式的华人区域主管。这种非正式的文化制度在管理沃尔玛的战略形成过程中扮演着重要的角色,因为不同的文化、不同的需求、对购物和零售的不同态度和反应,标准化的战略可能并不适用于所有的国家(Doherty, 2002)。正式和非正式的制度都存在,以使组织的执行更简单,减少不可预测性和不确定性,并建立规则,以阻止垄断和反竞争的做法(奎因,2013)。


有趣的是,国际市场与一个组织的内在愿望是一致的,即实现销售最大化、消费者最大化、利润最大化并占据巨大的市场份额。沃尔玛在开拓新市场时,可以提高产品的货架寿命,并在同类产品上获得更多的利润(Roberts and Berg, 2012)。相似利润的利润可能会根据不同地区的税法而有所不同,而扩张可以通过在高利润率的国家销售更多产品,在低利润率的国家合理销售,从而使利润更加平衡(Bull and Watson, 1984)。当公司进入一个新国家时,技术的使用对公司来说是一种促进,因为这个国家的技术使用刚刚起步。在这种情况下,更明智的做法是先下手为强,占领重要的市场份额。下图显示了沃尔玛在美国和国际市场的销售增长情况。


Informal institutions provide wealth of information to the organisation in basing their strategy and then executing it in the way the market demands (Baker, 1993). For example, Walmart found it difficult to relate to the products and the process of selling in China. Hence, it had to redo its strategy of appointing a regional head who was Chinese and could understand the way business would grow in China. This informal institution of culture plays a big role in managing the strategy formation process of Walmart, since a standardised strategy may not work in all countries because of different culture, different demands, different attitudes and response towards shopping and retail purchase (Doherty, 2002). The formal and informal institutions are both existent to make the organisations execution simpler and reduce unpredictability and uncertainty and establish rules to discourage creation of monopolies and anti-competitive practices (Quinn, 2013).

Reasons of international expansion

International markets are interestingly aligned with the inherent desires of an organisation of maximising sales, maximising consumers, and maximising profits and capturing a large market share. When Walmart expands in new markets, it can enhance the shelf life of the products and make more profits on similar products (Roberts and Berg, 2012). The profits of similar profits may vary according to taxation laws in different regions, and expansion can lead them to be more balanced by selling more in higher margin countries and selling reasonably in lower margin countries (Bull and Watson, 1984). The use of technology is an enhancer for the company when it enters a new country where the use of technology is nascent. In such scenarios, it is more sensible to have the first mover advantage and capture a significant market share. The chart below shows the growth of sales in US and international market for Walmart.