Assignment First


资本主义的兴起在工业革命时期尤为明显。资本主义是在1700年兴起的。获得物质安全的自由是资本主义的特征。铁和棉花产量的发展导致当地市场产量的增加和需求的减少(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.23)。18世纪生产过剩,人们必须维持一定的利润水平才能维持下去。这种生产过剩导致竞争加剧,并导致社会失业率上升。因此,社会对国外市场的需求开始上升。由于这些问题和无政府状态,社会中劳工组织的兴起(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.26)。1799年通过的联合法案是为了保护劳工的利益。自由资本主义是人民不受政府干预的一种经济制度。这种资本主义形式在社会中获得了突出地位。Speenhamland system是18世纪和19世纪早期为减轻贫困影响而设计的一个系统(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.63)。1790年代,工人的权利和工人的困境在社会中迅速恶化。


1840年至1873年,欧洲国家出现经济萧条(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.41)。在这段时间里,交通和通讯增加了。社会主义在20世纪初和19世纪末开始崭露头角。在经济衰退时期,失业率也有所上升。然而,由于这一事件,马克思提出的概念现在被认为是过时的。


Rise of capitalism was seen especially pronounced during the times of Industrial revolution. It was during 1700 that there was rise in capitalism. Freedom from obtaining material security was the hallmarks of capitalism. Development of iron, cotton productions lead to increase in production and decrease in demand in the local market (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.23). There was surplus amount of production in the 18th century and people had to maintain a certain profit level to sustain. This excess production leads to increase in competition and leads to higher unemployment rates in the societies. Hence the demand for foreign markets started to arise in the societies. There was rise in labor organizations in the societies owing to these issues and anarchy (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.26). Combination act of 1799 was passed to protect the interest of the laborers. Laissez faire capitalism is an economic system where the people are free from government interferences. This form of capitalism gained prominence in societies. Speenhamland system was a system that was devised in early 18th and 19th century to mitigate the effects of poverty (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.63). 1790s worker rights and plight of the workers had rapidly worsened in the societies.
Production increased by 30% in 1801. Majority of people in the society were hired to serve in the mining and manufacturing sector. This caused a creation of a new civilized society that was centered on manufacturing. Economy of industrialization also grew. There was rise in employment rates owing to the industrial revolution. A new kind of social system started to arise in the societies. Manufacturing and production gained prominence in the society. Desire to hoard material wealth was a belief in people that personal happiness was intertwined with material wealth. Property ownership was given precedence by the people. People ability to own land determined their social structure in the society.
From 1840 to 1873 there was economic depression in European countries (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.41). Transportation and communication increased during this time period. Socialism began to gain prominence during early 20th century and late 19th century. It also saw rise in unemployment during the times of recessions. Nevertheless concepts proposed by Marx are now considered to be obsolete owing to this event.