Step 5: Evaluate and analyze the information: The researcher compares the information which was compiled and found by them and their ideas from thinking and reading about the information to their heading.
• Step 6: Combine the information: This step is used to combine their thesis based on the compiled information which is assumed. This step is also useful to initiate to write their paper and outline their project.
• Step 7: Present/Communicate the research: Finally the research is communicated in the format needed by their professor and they must also use appropriate citations to eliminate plagiarism.
A research design is the planning and executing a research project from identifying the problem through to reporting and publishing the results. By contrast at its most specific level the design of the study refers to the way a researcher guards against and tries to rule out alternative interpretation of results. Pennink B and Jonker J (2010) says that the idea of situating the researcher in the empirical world illuminates the way in which research design can be thought of as providing a bridge between conceptualizing and operationalizing research. Research design is about making a basic plan for a research project. A design specifies the logical structure of a research project and the plan will be followed in its execution. According to Bordens (2006) a research design establishes the general framework of a study addressing each phase of the investigative process. Expert researchers design their studies and then implement these designs with flexibility as they respond to situations that arise as their projects progress. Research design varies depending to a great extent upon whether the study has a quantitative or qualitative orientation. There are some general considerations to be considered when designing any research project. This consists of:
• Establishing the validity of the final conclusions.
• Establishing conditions that make causal assertions and inferences plausible.
• Facilitating interpretation and generalization.
• Anticipating problems that may arise in the course of conducting the research.
In this research paper all the 4 article have descriptive research. The research which aims to describe the above characteristics of data is referred to as the descriptive research or sometimes even statistical research. Descriptive research is only one of the components of statistical research. In fact descriptive research is usually the first step towards any full-fledged statistical analysis. Kirsch G (1992) says that Descriptive research answers the questions of who, what, where, when and how. It does not answer the questions of why. Descriptive research deals with anything that can be measured or counted. Descriptive research is mainly done when a researcher wants to have quantitative ideas of the variables under study. Descriptive research is highly accurate and useful it does not provide the causes for the finding behind a situation as such.